1. 문장의 5형식
A monkey laughs.
The monkey is strange.
ð Be, become, get, seem, remain, turn, taste, feel, look, sound
I have a girlfriend.
I will lend you my note.
I will make you happy.
ð Make, keep, find, consider, call
과거시제 과거진행 과거완료 과거완료진행
-ed be(과거) ~ing had p.p had been ~ing
현재시제 현재진행 현재완료 현재완료진행
Be(현재) ~ing have/has p.p have[has] been ~ing
미래시제 미래진행 미래완료 미래완료진행
Will, be going to will be~ing will have p.p will have been ~ing
Can(could) be able to
Would / used to
Must have to
Should ought to (ought not to) had better(had better not)
Be + p.p
A lot of people read the magazine.
ð The magazine is read by a lot of people.
To + R(동사원형)
명사적 용법 He likes to go to the movies.
형용사적 용법 We don’t have time to eat breakfast.
부사적 용법 English grammar is not difficult to learn.
He went to Beijing to learn Chinese.
to부정사의 의미상 주어
It was nice of him to help the old lady.
Enough to R …하기에 충분히 ~ 한
Too ~ to R 너무 ~해서 …할 수 없는
* 지각동사(hear, feel, watch, see등 오감을 표현하는 동사) + O + R
ð I heard her turn on the computer.
* 사역동사(make, have, let / help) + O + R
ð He makes his son read books every night.
R + ing
동명사를 목적어로 취하는 동사: finish, keep, avoid, stop, give up, enjoy, mind, consider..
ð Why does the baby keep crying?
to부정사를 목적어로 취하는 동사: want, decide, expect, plan, refuse, ask, promise..
ð I want to make friends with Frank.
동명사와 to부정사를 목적어로 취하는 동사: like, hate, begin, continue..
ð My mom likes watching [to watch] soap operas.
동명사와 to부정사 각각의 뜻이 다른 동사
Remember [forget] + ~ing(과거) / to R (미래)
I remember going to Busan when I was 7.
Remember to return the DVD by tomorrow.
Try ~ing: 시험삼아 ~ 해 보다 / to R: ~하려고 애쓰다, 노력하다
I tried changing the battery, but the cell phone still didn’t work.
He tried to close the window, but it wouldn’t move.
자주 쓰이는 동명사 구문
Go ~ing: ~하러 가다
Feel like ~ing: ~하고 싶어지다
How[What] about ~ing?: ~하는게 어때?
Spend (시간, 돈) ~ing: ~하는 데 (시간, 돈)을 쓰다
prevent [stop, keep] A from ~ing: ~하지 못하게 막다
can’t help ~ing (=can’t (help) but + R): ~하지 않을 수 없다
worth ~ing (worthy of ~ing): ~할 가치가 있는
have trouble [difficulty] ~ing: ~하는 데 어려움을 겪다
It’s no use ~ing: ~go 봐야 소용없다
Be busy ~ing: ~하느라 바쁘다
On ~ing(= as soon as S V): ~하자마자
There is no ~ing: ~할 수 없다, ~해서는 안 된다.
Be used to~ing: ~하는 데 익숙하다
(be used to R: ~하기 위해 사용되다, used to R: ~하곤 했다.)
Look forward to ~ing: ~하기를 무척 기대하다
Object to ~ing(=be opposed to ~ing): ~하는 데 반대하다.
What do you say to ~ing(=how [what] about ~ing): ~하는 게 어때?
현재분사: R+ing 능동(~하게 만드는), 진행(~하고 있는)
과거분사: R+p.p 수동(~해진, 당한), 완료(~되어 있는)
Exciting / excited
분사구문: 접속사 + S + V è 접속사, 반복된 주어생략, V+ing
ð Having dinner, I went out for a walk. (After I had dinner, I went, out for a walk.)
ð 동시상황 / 때 / 원인, 이유
ð Generally speaking(일반적으로 말해서), judging from(~로 판단하건대), frankly speaking(솔직히 말하면)
등위접속사: and, but, or, so
(both A and B, not A but B, not only A but also B, B as well as A, either A or B, neither A nor B)
종속접속사: I believe that Tommy will help me out.
명사절을 이끄는 접속사: It is amazing that you got a new job. I wonder whether she will come to see me or not.
간접의문문: Do you remember when his birthday is?
부사절을 이끄는 종속접속사:
when, while, as, since, until(=till)
because, as, since
if, unless(= if ~ not), as long as , though(=although), even though
If I had an umbrella, I could go out. (è As I don’t have an umbrella, I can’t go out.)
If I were you, I would forgive him.
If I had checked the e-mail, I would have attended the meeting.
(è As I didn’t check the e-mail, I didn’t attend the meeting.)
If I had been rich, I would have bought the car.
다양한 형태의 가정법
I wish I were an adult. è I‘m sorry I’m not an adult. (~라면 좋을 텐데)
I wish I hadn’t told him a lie. è I’m sorry I told him a lie. (~였다면 좋을 텐데)
The woman greeted Mike as if she knew him. è In fact she didn’t know him.(마치 ~인 것처럼)
Everybody behaves as if nothing had happened. è In fact something happened. (마치 ~였던 것처럼)
It’s time we finished up this work. è It’s time we should finish up this work.
If it were not for your love, I couldn’t live one day.
= Without [But for] your love, I couldn’t live one day. (~가 없다면)
If it had not been for your advice, I wouldn’t have overcome the difficulty.
= Without [But for] your advice, I wouldn’t have overcome the difficulty. (~가 없었다면)
관계대명사: 명사를 꾸미는 절(형용사절)
l 주격 관계대명사
The man is a great basketball player. He is 160cm tall.
ð The man who[that] is 160cm tall is a great basketball player. (사람)
I am looking for a desk which[that] does not take up much space. (사물)
The man (who was) sitting in front of me had a big head.
(주격 관계대명사+be동사 생략)
l 목적격 관계대명사 (목적격 생략가능)
That’s the girl (whom) I like best in my school.
I’ve seen all the movies (that) Spielberg made.
l 소유격 관계대명사
That’s the woman whose husband won the lottery.
l 관계대명사 what: ~하는 것
That’s what I like about her. (That’s the thing that I like about her.)
This is the place in which I was born. è This is the place where I was born.
Today is the day on which she gets married. è Today is the day when she gets married.
I know the reason for which he didn’t come. è I know the reason why he didn’t come.
Tell me the way in which you solved it. è Tell me how you solved it.
11. 명사와 관사
명사: 사람이나 사물의 이름
관사: a/an, the
12. 대명사: 명사를 대신하여 쓰는 말
13. 형용사와 부사
형용사: 명사, 대명사를 꾸며주거나, 주어, 목적어를 보충 설명하는 역할
부사: 동사나 형용사 또는 다른 부사나 문장 전체를 꾸며주는 말로, 주로 ‘~하게’로 해석
-er / -est: smart smarter smartest
y->ier / iest easy easier easiest
단모음+단자음 => 자음을 하나 더 쓰기: hot hotter hottest
3음절 이상 more, most: difficult more difficult most difficult
불규칙: good, well => better best
bad, badly => worse worst
many, much => more most
little => less least
the 비교급, the 비교급 (~할수록 더욱 ...하다): The more I get to know her, the more I trust her.
비교급 and 비교급 (점점 더 ~한): more and more tired
as 원급 as A (A만큼 ~한): Time is as valuable as money.
as 원급 as possible (가능한 한 ~한,하게): as soon as possible
one of the 최상급 복수명사: one of the tallest buildings
at most 기껏해야, 많아야
at least 적어도, 최소한
장소: at, in, on, by/beside, over, under, between, among, in front of/behind, around, out of/into, up/down, from/to
시간: at/in/on, before/after/in, by/until, from/since, for/during
원인, 이유, 목적: for/with/from/of, for/on
도구[수단], 재료를 나타내는 전치사: with/by/in
관련, 주제, 찬반을 나타내는 전치사: about/on/of, for/against
16. 일치와 화법
수의일치 / 시제일치
Paul said to her, “I love you.” è Paul told her that he loved her.
He asked her, “Where do you want to go?” è He asked her where she wanted to go.
He asked, “Do you know any French?” è He asked if[whether] I knew any French.
I said to him, “Go back home.” è I told him to go back home.